By Bunge M.

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**Sample text**

It can be seen that the band edges occur at q = 0 or π/(a + b), that is, where the left-hand side of eq. 13) equals ±1. with energy, E, of the right-hand side of eq. 14), fR (E), superimposed on a graph of the range of allowed values of the left-hand side, showing clearly the existence of allowed and forbidden energy regions. 5 Å, and barrier height V0 = 10 eV. The energies vary continuously with q within each band, and the band edges always occur at high symmetry points: either at the centre of the Brillouin zone (q = 0), or else at the Brillouin zone edge (q = π/(a + b)).

4(b)). 13) respectively, which are just the equations determining the even and odd energy levels in a well of width 2a. 4 Comparison of the exact double well energy levels of ﬁg. 2 (solid lines) with the energy levels calculated using the variational method, where the double well variational functions are taken to be a linear combination of exact isolated well wavefunctions. 3 4 that core levels play no part in molecular bonding, and that the molecular wavefunctions can often be well approximated by linear combinations of atomic orbitals.

1). 3) and where the subscript n refers to the nth state associated with the wavevector k. g. Ashcroft and Mermin, Ibach and Lüth). We do not prove Bloch’s theorem here but rather make its proof plausible by noting two consequences of eq. 2). (1) Periodic electron density: We expect in a periodic solid that the electron probability density, |ψnk (r)|2 , can vary between different points within a given unit cell. This is allowed by eq. 4) and the function, unk (r), although periodic, is not required to be constant, so can vary within a given unit cell.