By Jonathan Owens
A Linguistic historical past of Arabic provides a reconstruction of proto-Arabic through the equipment of historical-comparative linguistics. It demanding situations the conventional conceptualization of an outdated, Classical language evolving into the modern Neo-Arabic dialects. Professor Owens combines proven comparative linguistic technique with a cautious studying of the classical Arabic assets, corresponding to the grammatical and exegetical traditions. He arrives at a richer and extra complicated photo of early Arabic language heritage than is present this present day and in doing so establishes the foundation for a complete, linguistically-based knowing of the historical past of Arabic. The arguments are set out in a concise, case by way of case foundation, making it available to scholars and students of Arabic and Islamic tradition, in addition to to these learning Arabic and old linguists.
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Extra resources for A Linguistic History of Arabic (Oxford Linguistics)
Nonetheless, the importance of ﬁnding ways to efﬁciently and scientiﬁcally teach language, particularly for military purposes, led to time and funds being made available for language research. Parallel research also took place on subjects such as machine translation which would, in turn, provide insights that would inﬂuence CALL. 1 Machine translation Machine translation (MT) is the application of computers to the task of translating texts from one natural language to another. The task is made difﬁcult by the imprecise nature of languages, particularly the use of sarcasm, puns, innuendo, idiomatic expressions and rhetorical devices.
The focus was on translation of Russian documents, especially scientiﬁc documents. Work by Curtin et al. in the early 1970s on Russian language teaching and learning included grammar explanations, vocabulary drills and other drills and translation A B R I E F H I STO R Y O F C A L L tests over a course of 16 lessons requiring 70 hours to complete. The system had so-called ‘intelligent’ (in this case, simply a system that offered feedback as tailored advice) features still used today, such as tests that were followed by directions to complete appropriate remedial work depending on the errors a learner had made.
Another feature of some programs, such as the Blackboard Vista computer-based course creation platform, is the opportunity for teachers to track automatically the number of minutes learners spend working. Of course, the learner can also circumvent this by simply leaving the computer on with the program in operation while doing other things. These issues draw CALL into another area of applied linguistics, the study of motivation. Further reading Dörnyei, Z. (2009) The Psychology of Second Language Acquisition.