By Henning Andersen (Ed.)
This choice of papers consolidates the statement that linguistic swap as a rule is actualized step-by-step: any structural innovation being brought, authorized, and generalized, through the years, in a single grammatical surroundings after one other, in a development that may be understood through connection with the markedness values and the score of the conditioning gains. The creation to the amount and a bankruptcy by way of Henning Andersen make clear the theoretical bases for this commentary, that is exemplified and mentioned in separate chapters via Kristin Bakken, Alexander Bergs and Dieter Stein, Vit Bubenik, Ulrich Busse, Marianne Mithun, Lene Schøsler, and John Charles Smith within the gentle of information from the histories of Norwegian, English, Hindi, Northern Iroquoian, and Romance. a last bankruptcy via Michael Shapiro provides a philosophical viewpoint. The papers have been first provided in a workshop on “Actualization styles in Linguistic swap” on the XIV foreign convention on historic Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C. in 1999.
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Extra info for Actualization: Linguistic Change in Progress. Papers from a Workshop Held at the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C., 14 August 1999
But it has done nothing to clear up the mystery of how this asymmetry is imposed on the logically symmetrical modes of opposition, not only the privative (contradictory) ones Trubetzkoy acknowledged, but also other binary distinctions, contrariety, converseness, and direction. Here I have sketched an account that clears up this mystery, so to say, in three moves. First, instead of thinking of markedness as an asymmetry that is imposed on other modes of opposition, with which it is essentially incompatible, I hypothesize that markedness arises in the initial cognition of any and all distinctions thanks to the inherently asymmetrical, inclusive relation that obtains between any concept that is formed () and the conceptual space that surrounds it(U).
If we examine, for instance, the logico-semantic relations exemplified in the Zamboangueño lexeme pairs in Table 7 we find that they are of several kinds. Some of the lexical pairs are strictly speaking logical contradictories; such are "clean : dirty", "clear : turbid", "straight : bent", as well as the opposition in biological sex in "bachelor : unmarried girl" (an unmarried person is either a male or a female—tertium non datur). Other pairs are logical contraries; among these are "large : small", "tall : short", "fast : slow", "strong : weak", "tight : loose", "sharp : dull", "smooth : rough" (the predicate "not large" does not entail "small"—there is a third possibility, viz.
The progression can be modeled as a series of step-by-step modifications of variable rules, and hence it presupposes the formation and existence—in each speaker's competence, at any time during the progression of the change—of a comprehensive network of association that readily relates unmarked terms with unmarked, and marked with marked terms across categories, in part without regard to the substantive character of the categories, in part, apparently, constrained by reference to the substantive content of some categories.