Adaptive Analog VLSI Neural Systems by M. Jabri, R.J. Coggins, B.G. Flower

By M. Jabri, R.J. Coggins, B.G. Flower

amplitude ~---. -----. -----. -----,-----. -----,-,~ VfT:j·" four. 50 four. 00 three. 50 q . three. 00 /'\. ~ -'" : ! . 2. 50 ,: \ . . . 1! -. i "'" " 2. 00 1. 50 ··GO··O_O_ ,-. . . . &. , . ; D Q . " . . . / 1. 00 zero. 50 zero. 00 L. -----1. . ---. . l. -----:-:::''"::-::--::-::-'-:::-::------=--::-'-::-:=---=-=""=_:' five. 00 10. 00 15. 00 determine 7. 1 The morphology of ST and VT retrograde 1:1. © 1995 IEEE [Coggins, labri, Flower and Pickard {1995}]. ing to the analog area. also, using differential pair multipliers and present node summing within the community permits a min­ imum of units within the community itself and for that reason linked discount rates in energy and quarter. even though, within the previous few many years analog sign processing has been used sparingly as a result of results of machine off­ units, noise and drift*. The neural community structure alleviates those difficulties to a wide volume on account that it's either hugely parallel and adaptive. the truth that the community is proficient to acknowledge morphologies with the analog circuits in-loop implies that the synaptic weights might be tailored to cancel gadget offsets [Castro, Tam and Holler (1993); Castro and candy (1993)]. The effect of neighborhood un correlated noise is diminished by way of the parallelism of * such a lot fabrication strategies were optimised for electronic layout concepts which ends up in terrible analog performance.

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9 may now be simplified for more common use. 9 Element nMOS pMOS C gs 28 28 iF Cgd 5 5 iF Cds 8 8 iF C ss 8 8 iF gm 196 112 p,AjV gmB 235 134 p,AjV gd. 10 Simplified common-source MOSFET small signal circuit model. difference between source and substrate, so that both may be common in the model. 10. 7 Simple CMOS amplifiers A large number of CMOS amplifier configurations have appeared in commercial and research data, demonstrating amongst other things, that there is no ideal amplifier circuit. So the scope here is restricted to the versions likely to be useful in neural network circuits.

A few will benefit from gains which are an order of magnitude higher. The previous sections demonstrate that 60 - 80dB gain can be achieved by the one-stage OTA type of circuits. These have the limitation that they are not suitable for resistive load driving but have the advantage that dominant pole compensation is readily provided by the capacitive load and that a separate compensation capacitor is not needed. Thus, in the range of applications dealt with in this book, the OTA is likely to be the first choice.

The process then continues until the LSB is tested, each test applying a voltage change which is one half of the previous one. This chapter concludes with a brief mention of the fastest ADC, the flash converter. 26 and is readily understood. The resistor string sets up a series of evenly-spaced voltages between the reference and ground. As a result of the top and bottom resistors being half the value of the others, each tap voltage lies mid-way between two levels on the scale between VR and ground.

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